Pests and Diseases: Japanese Beetles

Well, the Japanese beetles are zooming about and hiding out in your roses. They can quickly turn your prized plants into skeletons of their former selves. There are tons of chemicals that people use to kill them each year but is it really necessary? Do we really have to drench our beloved plants in insecticides to withstand the deluge of Japanese beetles? Let’s look at the life cycle of Japanese beetles to determine the best time to treat them.

 

japanese beetles
Photo courtesy of USDA

 

The winged insect that you see flying around in July is the culmination of a full year’s work. The eggs were layed in the soil the previous July or August and quickly hatched into grubs. Those tiny grubs eat plant roots until the temperatures cool down in the fall. At this point, they burrow down 4″-8″ to wait out the winter. In the spring as the temperatures rise, the larvae rise back to the surface where they mature into the adult that eats your plants. Now, thinking about how to successfully treat them, it only makes sense to treat the grubs when they are small in the late summer. In Virginia, August is the best time. If you wait until the spring, the grubs are large (over an 1″) and it takes much more chemical to kill them.

As you all know, I don’t like applying pesticides. As much as I don’t like them and won’t use them in my yard, I understand that many homeowners still prefer to use chemical methods. I would rather educate people so that if they apply chemicals they do so at the proper time instead of applying chemicals willy nilly. I am often asked in the spring what chemicals can be applied to take care of Japanese beetles. People are discouraged when I tell them that missed the boat and need to wait until late summer. At least you all know now.

In regards to more organic methods of Japanese beetle control there are a few options. The first is milky spore. It’s a soil dwelling bacteria that attacks the grubs and then reproduces in the soil. It is slow to establish itself but the magic of milky spore is that it continues to propagate itself without any effort from you. Another control option is trapping. There are the conventional yellow bag traps that have been used for decades and there are all sorts of newfangled ones. I saw an interesting video on a new type of trap that is renewable. I am by no means recommending it since I haven’t tried it but it’s still a great idea that I thought that I would pass along.

If you watched the video, you saw that backyard chickens are an integral part of the system. Chickens are a wonderful means of pest control that should be considered as part of any backyard garden. They provide pest control, manure that can be composted for your garden and “hen fruit”, the name that Joel Salatin has given to eggs.

Is your garden being inundated with Japanese beetles this year? What control methods are you using? Leave me a comment below or e-mail me to let me know. If you enjoy being part of the Mid-Atlantic Gardening community, join our e-mail list (upper right hand corner of this page), become a fan on Facebook and follow me on Twitter. Happy gardening!

Friday Free for All: Backyard Chickens

backyard chickensBefore we start discussing chickens, I want to let you know that I don’t have any chickens. I’ve never had any chickens, backyard or otherwise. My husband and I were determined to get a few girls last year but our resident raccoon population deterred us. That and the fact that our backyard is uneven…we couldn’t figure out how to keep the backyard chickens safe from predators. We didn’t want them in a coop…we wanted them on fresh green grass in a tractor.

A tractor? For those who aren’t familar with chicken tractors, they’re essentially a movable pen that has a run for them to access fresh ground each day and a coop where they can be safe at night. Here’s a visual for you:

backyard chickens
Photo courtesy of www.wikipedia.org

 

Chicken tractors can be simple or complex…cheaply made or extravagant. It’s up to you…the chickens won’t mind either way.

What are the benefits of backyard chickens?

  1. Backyard chickens are composting machines. Throw in your kitchen scraps and you get manure and eggs. Seems like a good trade off to me.
  2. They can help with insect control. We have all sorts of little creatures crawling around in our backyard. Chickens can help with ticks, beetles, spiders, caterpillars, grubs…you name the insect and they’ll pretty much eat it.
  3. They can improve your soil. As they’re busy ingesting all of the yummies that you give them and the goodies they find on their own, they’re producing manure for you. Chicken manure has to be composted before it can added to your garden but if you move them daily, the fertilizer they leave behind on your lawn will be just fine.
  4. Backyard chickens can clean up your garden for you. If your girls are in a tractor, move your tractor to your garden a few weeks before you’re ready to plant. They’ll go after any insects that are hanging out waiting for your veggies to be planted, they’ll weed the garden (to a point…they are chickens after all) and they’ll fertilize. When you’re finished with the garden in the fall, let them back into the garden to clean up insects that are left behind. They’ll scratch your weeds into the soil and fertilize again.
  5. Eggs! Unless you’re a vegan, eggs are enjoyed by most people in one form or another. You may not want scrambled eggs every morning (I do!) but chances are you bake a cake once in a while. Studies have shown that eggs from backyard chickens and those raised on pasture have the perfect ratio of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. Eggs that you purchase from the grocery store are more than likely from chickens raised in confinement housing and their fatty acid ratios are completely out of whack. Here’s a picture I took of eggs from my local producer, Cardinal Hill Farms, and those from the grocery store. The eggs from the grocer are touted as cage free, certified organic and vegetarian fed. Besides the fact that chickens are omnivores, let’s see what the picture reveals.

 

backyard chickens

The locally produced egg’s yolk is deep orange and sits up nice and proud whereas the cage free, “certified organic” egg’s yolk is pale yellow and flat. I’ll take my non-certified organic, locally produced egg any day.

The last thing I want to discuss regarding backyard chickens is meat. Also known as broilers, meat birds are raised for well, ummmm, meat. It may seem cruel to you to butcher your own birds but I can tell you from first hand experience that it’s not. I volunteered at Avery’s Branch Farm in Amelia, VA on Tuesday to help them process chickens. I don’t have any pictures to share but here is a video from Polyface Farms showing their operation. It’s worth watching!

I was hesistant about the whole process at first but I felt like it was important to know how chicken processing works on a family farm. It’s not nearly as horrible as people think it is. The chickens are put in killing cones where two cuts are made on each side of the neck. The chickens bleed out quickly, in usually less than a minute. They are then placed in scalding water to help loosen the feathers and then they are plucked in a plucker. The heads are removed, then the feet and the oil gland are removed and then they are eviscerated. I worked at the evisceration station for most of the process and it’s actually a pretty cool process. You learn the anatomy of the chicken and it truly makes you realize how impossible it is to pay 99 cents per pound for a chicken that is actually healthy for you to eat. We processed 300 chickens that day. Three hundred chickens that will be sold to support a family farm.

So, do you have backyard chickens? Are they in a coop or tractor or free range? Do you have layers or broilers? Leave me a comment below or e-mail me at stacey@midatlanticgardening.com. Happy gardening!